Mexican Wolf Recovery Plan Now Up for Public Comment

Mexican gray wolf | Courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has released a draft of its recovery plan for the Mexican gray wolf, laying out the population benchmarks the agency believes will allow the species to be removed from the federal endangered-species list.

The public has until August 29 to comment on the draft plan, which is available online.

Mexican wolves currently exist in two populations: one in Arizona and New Mexico, and one in Mexico. Under the agency's draft plan, the species would be considered for downlisting (from "endangered" to "threatened") when either the U.S. population of wolves reaches 320 for four consecutive years, or the Mexican population reaches 170 for the same number of years. Both stipulations would be contingent on achieving genetic diversity through scheduled releases of captive-bred wolves.

Assuming genetic diversity is achieved, the draft plan also says the wolves could be downlisted if both populations average 150 wolves over four consecutive years "with a positive growth trajectory."

To be considered for removal from the endangered-species list entirely, both populations would have to hit those population benchmarks for eight consecutive years. Genetic diversity via captive releases would be required then, too.

The agency says it anticipates recovery of the Mexican wolves in 25 to 35 years. There were 113 wolves counted in the U.S. population in 2016; the Mexican population is still being established and is much smaller. The species nearly went extinct in the 1980s, and the wolves living today are descended from a captive breeding program of just seven animals.

You can read the entire plan at this link, and you can get information about commenting on the plan at this link. Wolves are always a controversial topic, so we advise you to read the entire plan, then make your voice heard by adding your input.

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Federal Agencies Move to Protect Endangered Ocelots in Arizona

Ocelots occasionally make their way into Arizona. | George Andrejko, Arizona Game and Fish Department

When it comes to rare cats in Arizona, jaguars seem to get all the headlines. But ocelots are rarities in our state, too — and now, federal officials are moving to make sure these endangered felines don't become even more so.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have agreed to examine risks associated with how they trap and poison bobcats, coyotes, bears and other predators, Capitol Media Services reported last month. The move comes in response to a lawsuit filed by the Center for Biological Diversity, which argues that the current predator-control methods used by the departments pose a danger to ocelots.

While the agreement ends the nonprofit organization's lawsuit, it doesn't actually require that any changes be made to the agencies' trapping practices, Capitol Media Services reported. But it does require the agencies to update their analysis of the wildlife-control programs currently in use.

The Center for Biological Diversity says the ocelots' range in Arizona, which includes the Whetstone, Santa Rita and Huachuca mountains, appears to be expanding. The cats have been spotted at least five times in the state since 2009; that includes a dead ocelot found on a road near Globe, a treed one in the Huachucas in 2011 and one photographed in the Santa Ritas in 2014.

The species was listed as endangered in the United States in 1982, and there are believed to be fewer than 100 of them remaining in the U.S., most of them in the extreme southern part of Texas. They're widespread in Central America and most of South America.

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See a California Condor Nest From Navajo Bridge

A California condor stands outside its nest in Marble Canyon. In the cave to the right, its mate and chick are visible. | Courtesy of John Sherman

John "Verm" Sherman loves California condors. As we've reported in Arizona Highways, Sherman, a frequent contributor to the magazine, has been on a quest to photograph every condor in Arizona. Along the way, he's gotten to know these unique and rare birds — and he recently told us of an equally rare opportunity to see a condor family in the birds' natural environment.

"Condors 354 and 496 picked a nesting site in clear view from Navajo Bridge," Sherman says in an email. "This gives the public a never-before-had chance to personally watch a condor chick grow up in the wild."

Sherman photographed the nest May 30 and saw an egg inside; the next day, the egg had hatched, revealing the newly designated Condor 891. He plans on following the chick until it fledges, which probably will happen around November. Until then, it will remain in the nest in Marble Canyon, upstream from Navajo Bridge.

Sherman says biologists with the condor recovery program are frequently at the bridge with spotting scopes that the public can use to see the nest. Visitors also can donate to the program, which Sherman says has been decimated by budget cuts this year.

Sherman says it's hard to see the chick in the morning because of the harsh light, but in the afternoon, between 4:30 p.m. and sunset, if you have a good pair of binoculars, you should be able to get a glimpse of the condors and their chick upstream from the bridge. Keep in mind that drone flying is strictly prohibited in the area.

Through a variety of conservation measures and reintroduction programs, the condors now number more than 400 in the wild — up from just 22 in 1987.

As for Sherman's quest to photograph every condor, he recently bagged his "white whale": Condor 203, which was the last of the condors that were in the wild when Sherman decided to photograph them all. But his quest has taken long enough that several new captive-bred condors are now flying free in Arizona. And Sherman has yet to photograph one of them — Condor 850. So his search continues.

You can see more of Sherman's work on his website or Instagram feed, and you can learn more about the condors by visiting The Peregrine Fund's Condor Cliffs page.

All photos courtesy of John Sherman.

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Know These 6 Causes of Forest Fires

Firefighters conduct mop-up work during the 2014 San Juan Fire on the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests. | Courtesy of U.S. Forest Service

Unattended campfires get a lot of the blame for starting wildfires. And they should, especially in Arizona. The Wallow Fire, the biggest fire in our state's recorded history, started when two cousins didn't properly extinguish their campfire. It went on to burn more than half a million acres in Arizona and New Mexico.

So, yes, campfire safety is important. But as The Arizona Republic reported last week, officials want you to know that plenty of other things can cause wildfires — especially when you get out of the high country and into the desert.

Safety chains hanging from trailers is one of those causes, a Bureau of Land Management spokeswoman told The Republic. Those chains can throw sparks when they hit the ground, and the BLM says that often starts brush fires along Interstate 17 between Phoenix and Flagstaff. Flat tires on trailers can do the same thing, and the BLM said one vehicle in April started 18 different fires when a trailer tire went flat and the exposed rim touched the pavement.

A hot vehicle pulling off the road can ignite dry grass underneath it, too. And engaging in target practice, if you're shooting at something metal that can throw sparks, might start a blaze as well. The BLM notes that tracer rounds and exploding targets, two other common fire causes, are illegal on public lands.

Finally, it should go without saying that embers from a cigarette butt flicked out a car window can easily start a fire in dry grassland. And, again, campfires cause devastating blazes, too, so douse your campfire with water and stir it, then make sure it's cool to the touch. As both the BLM and the U.S. Forest Service note: If it's too hot to touch, it's too hot to leave.

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How Should North Rim's Bison Be Managed? You Can Weigh In

A small herd of bison on the Grand Canyon's North Rim. | Courtesy of National Park Service

We told you earlier this week that the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Park is now open for business. Now, an ongoing study of how to manage a herd of non-native bison that roam near the North Rim is ready for public review and comment, the National Park Service announced last week.

The bison, frequently sighted along the North Rim Parkway, are descended from animals brought to the area in 1906. They numbered about 100 in the 1990s, but now, there are estimated to be 400 to 600 of them on the Kaibab Plateau, the Park Service said. That number could grow to nearly 800 in the next three years, and 1,200 to 1,500 within 10 years, if management actions are not taken, according to the Park Service. That would increase the herd's impact on the park's water, vegetation, soils and archaeological sites.

An initial environmental assessment of how to reduce the herd size has been completed, and through June 7, it's available for public review and comment at this link.

The Park Service said the goal is to reduce the herd to fewer than 200 animals, and its "preferred alternative" for reaching that goal would involve a combination of "lethal culling" and non-lethal capture and removal.

The Kaibab Plateau herd is one of two Arizona herds of bison, which are not known to have ever roamed in Arizona prior to their introduction in the 1900s. The other herd is at the Raymond Wildlife Area, about 40 miles southeast of Flagstaff.

Before 1800, tens of millions of bison roamed present-day Canada, the United States and northern Mexico, but due to widespread hunting in the 19th century, just 1,100 were left by 1900. Today, there are around 500,000 bison in North America, although most of them have been cross-bred with cattle.

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How to 'Bee' Safe During Swarm Season

Bees play a vital role in our environment and economy, but it's important to take precautions to avoid being stung. | Randy Dean

It's May in Arizona, which means it's the season of bee swarms in the desert. But according to experts, swarms of bees aren't as dangerous as you might think — and with a few common-sense tips, you can help keep them that way.

According to the University of Arizona, bees swarm when a bee colony produces a new queen. The old queen and some of the worker bees then leave the colony to start a new one. But the queen isn't a great flier, so the swarm must make stops to give her a chance to rest. 

It's important to know the difference between a bee swarm and a bee colony, the UA says. Bee swarms are usually out in the open, such as hanging from an exposed tree branch, and the bees rarely behave in a defensive manner. These swarms typically leave within a few days.

Bee colonies, on the other hand, are mostly hidden from view and can stick around for months, or even years. Those bees often do become defensive, and Africanized bees — which all of Arizona's wild bees are presumed to be — aren't as particular as European bees about where they set up shop, which can bring them into conflict with humans more often.

If you notice a bee swarm on your property, the UA recommends cordoning off the area until the bees move on. A bee colony, on the other hand, should be removed by an experienced beekeeper. Don't try to do it yourself.

People often call 911 to report bee swarms, but the UA's experts say there's no need to do that unless you've been stung and can't get away, or you see someone else being attacked by bees.

If you are attacked, don't panic. Most bee-related deaths occur due to people causing their own demise, such as by running into traffic or staying underwater too long and drowning, the UA says. You should run, though, in a straight line, and find shelter in a car, house or building. If you're out on a hiking trail and there's no shelter nearby, run the length of two football fields — that's 240 yards, or 720 feet — before stopping. And try to avoid other people, or they'll be attacked as well.

Bees are slow fliers, the UA says, and a healthy person should be able to outrun them. Once you're out of danger, scrape off any stingers, and wash sting sites with soap and water. If you've been stung more than 30 times, the UA recommends going to the emergency room. An ER visit is also necessary if you notice symptoms of anaphylactic shock, which include difficulty breathing or swallowing, itching and swelling of the eye area, a rapid or faint pulse, and dizziness.

Bee swarms are most common in May and June, experts say.

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Jackrabbit Fight!

This screen grab from a video uploaded by WeatherNation shows two jackrabbits battling at Catalina State Park.

A video currently making the rounds on social media shows two Catalina State Park jackrabbits not getting along so well.

The short video, first posted by WeatherNation, features a nighttime "boxing match" by the rabbits on a roadside in the park near Tucson. They go at it for a while, and then one of the rabbits runs off, with the other hare giving chase.

We checked with Brooke Bessesen, author of our recently published Arizona Highways Wildlife Guide, for some insight on this behavior. "It's always interesting to see not-commonly-observed behavior — and right by the side of the road, no less," she says.

Bessesen says it's long been reported that male hares compete, so most viewers of the video might argue that these two jackrabbits are males fighting for breeding rights. But she says a recent paper, published in the journal Nature, suggests that such interactions are more likely between a male and a female, with the female trying to avoid breeding.

So, whether this is two males or a male and a female, it had to be an arresting sight for the person who came upon them on the side of the road. To learn more about jackrabbits and other species native to Arizona, pick up a copy of the Wildlife Guide online or at major Arizona booksellers.

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Program Helps Native Traditions Take Flight Again

The Non-Eagle Feather Repository Program provides Native Americans with a legal way to acquire bird feathers for ceremonies and other purposes. | Kirsten Kraklio

Robert Mesta may have retired from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service after nearly 40 years, but he certainly hasn’t stopped working.

Mesta is the coordinator of Liberty Wildlife’s Non-Eagle Feather Repository Program. Since 2010, the nonprofit group — in cooperation with the Fish and Wildlife Service — has worked to legally provide Native Americans with a source of non-eagle feathers for ceremonial, religious and healing purposes. 

The group gathers feathers from molting birds at Liberty Wildlife's facility, but also relies on contributions from other rehabilitators, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Arizona Game and Fish Department, falconers, museums and zoos, Mesta said. 

“The significance of this particular program is that for almost 100 years, Native Americans haven’t had a legal vehicle to obtain non-eagle feathers for ceremonial and religious purposes,” he explained.

According to Liberty Wildlife, unregulated trapping, hunting, poisoning and loss of habitat threatened North America’s birds throughout the 1800s, resulting in a number of laws being enacted to stop the decline and protect native bird species.

While the laws helped to protect wildlife, they also had unintended consequences: Native Americans were longer able to collect birds or feathers for cultural purposes, and a black market for bird feathers and parts was created, Mesta said.

The effect on Native Americans was apparent, as birds and their features are an integral part of many tribes' cultures.

“Native Americans were one with their environment. They depended on those animals — not only for sustenance, food or clothing, but they also relied on those animals, and particularly birds, to help sustain them spiritually,” Mesta said. “Over the years, a lot of ceremonies and dances that involved bird feathers were lost, or at least compromised or maybe not performed as frequently, because there was no source of feathers in order to construct regalia or ceremonial implements that were necessary.”

Mesta credits Benjamin Tuggle, regional director for the Fish and Wildlife Service’s Southwest Region, with helping to get the program developed.

“The Fish and Wildlife Service over the years had recognized the situation, but no one had really wanted to step forward and look at what might be a proactive solution," he said. "Up until the repository first got going in 2010, the action taken was reactive, which meant law enforcement went out and arrested people that were selling feathers illegally.

“This was the first opportunity to take proactive measures. And by that, I mean we were actually collecting feathers, holding feathers and then providing [them] through an application process to Native Americans. By doing that, we’re giving them an alternative to buying them illegally through the black market."

Native Americans can apply for bird feathers or parts through Liberty Wildlife’s application process. Certificates of authorization accompany the shipments to show the recipients received the feathers or parts legally.

According to Mesta, the program has provided more than 3,000 feathers to 171 different tribes in 47 states.

“This year, we filled over 80 percent of the orders that came in, compared to only 39 percent to last year,” he said. The ability to expand orders filled and the program itself have been enhanced by Liberty Wildlife’s new facility, which opened this fall.

“We didn’t even have a building before; we did our stuff outside," Mesta said. "Now, we actually have an office where people can come sit down and work."

Mesta's future plans include things that require a healthy budget. He wants to create an internship program for Native American students, as well as an accredited college course that would teach students to care for the birds, help rehabilitate, teach feather identification and explain the cultural significance of the feathers.

“We can send out feathers, and that’s great, but this program has so much potential to do more things, and that’s one example of how I see us benefiting Native American cultures in addition to providing feathers for ceremonial purposes," he said.

Mesta said the volunteers of Liberty Wildlife are proud to be correcting a situation that is almost a century old.

As Mare VanDyke, a volunteer and assistant to Mesta, put it: “[We’re] giving life to feathers that can no longer fly.”

— Kirsten Kraklio

To learn more about Liberty Wildlife's Non-Eagle Feather Repository Program, visit www.non-eaglefeathers.net.

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Possible Second Arizona Jaguar Photographed

This photograph from a trail camera at Fort Huachuca may show only the second jaguar known to be living in Arizona. | Arizona Game and Fish Department

A Fort Huachuca trail camera recently snapped a photo of what may be the second jaguar known to be spending time in Arizona.

The Arizona Game and Fish Department said in a news release last week that preliminary analysis of the photo indicates the jaguar to be a male. Until now, only one jaguar, also a male, was known to be living in Arizona — or anywhere in the U.S., for that matter. That jaguar, known as "El Jefe," has been photographed in the Santa Rita Mountains, northwest of Fort Huachuca, the U.S. Army installation where the recent photo was made.

A representative of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service said the jaguar photographed could potentially be a new jaguar. The service is working with Game and Fish to determine whether that's the case.

As discussed in the April 2014 issue of Arizona Highways, predator control programs in the 1900s all but removed jaguars from their U.S. habitat.

Randy Serraglio, a conservation advocate with the Center for Biological Diversity, welcomed the news of a possible second jaguar sighting. “We’ve been expecting another jaguar to pop up in southern Arizona for some time now," he said in a news release, adding that “jaguars will keep returning to southern Arizona to repopulate their ancestral homelands."

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Sandhill Cranes Return to Whitewater Draw

Sandhill cranes at the Whitewater Draw Wildlife Area. | Tam Ryan

One of Arizona's most anticipated annual wildlife events has occurred: Sandhill cranes are back at Whitewater Draw near McNeal.

The distinctive birds, known for their red crowns, arrive at the Whitewater Draw Wildlife Area every fall and stay there until March or April, when they migrate north. The wildlife area is northeast of Bisbee in Arizona's southeastern corner.

The Arizona Game and Fish Department has set up a live stream of the cranes at the wildlife area. The department says the best time to see them is right around sunrise, after which the cranes leave the roost to feed. They return later in the morning and usually stay there for the rest of the day. To view the live stream, click here.

To learn more about the animals that call Arizona home, pick up a copy of the new Arizona Highways Wildlife Guide, which features 125 of the state's native species.

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